- Plural of ciliate
- For the type of leaf margin, see Leaf#Margins (edge)
Cell structureUnlike other eukaryotes, ciliates have two different sorts of nuclei: a small, diploid micronucleus (reproduction), and a large, polyploid macronucleus (general cell regulation). The latter is generated from the micronucleus by amplification of the genome and heavy editing. Division of the macronucleus occurs by amitosis, the segregation of the chromosomes is by a process, whose mechanism is unknown. This process is by no means perfect, and after about 200 generations the cell shows signs of aging. Periodically the macronuclei must be regenerated from the micronuclei. In most, this occurs during conjugation. Here two cells line up, the micronuclei undergo meiosis, some of the haploid daughters are exchanged and then fuse to form new micronuclei and macronuclei.
Most ciliate cell membranes are surrounded by a pellicle - a clear, elastic layer of protein. With a few exceptions, there is a distinct cytostome or mouth where ingestion takes place. Food vacuoles are formed through phagocytosis and typically follow a particular path through the cell as their contents are digested and broken down via lysosomes so the substances the vacuole contains are then small enough to diffuse through the membrane of the food vacuole into the cell. Anything left in the food vacuole by the time it reaches the cytoproct (anus) is discharged via exocytosis. Most ciliates also have one or more prominent contractile vacuoles, which collect water and expel it from the cell to maintain osmotic pressure, or in some function to maintain ionic balance. These often have a distinctive star-shape, with each point being a collecting tube.
FeedingMost ciliates feed on smaller organisms (heterotrophic), such as bacteria and algae, and detritus swept into the oral groove (mouth) by modified oral cilia. This usually include a series of membranelles to the left of the mouth and a paroral membrane to its right, both of which arise from polykinetids, groups of many cilia together with associated structures. The food is moved by the cilia through the mouth pore into the gullet, which forms food vacuoles.
This varies considerably, however. Some ciliates are mouthless and feed by absorption, while others are predatory and feed on other protozoa and in particular on other ciliates. This includes the suctoria, which feed through several specialized tentacles
ReproductionCiliates can undergo both asexual and sexual reproduction. Asexual reproduction occurs by binary fission. The micronucleus undergoes by mitosis and the macronucleus elongates and splits in half. Both new cells each obtain a copy of the micronucleus and macronucleus. Sexual reproduction involves conjugation, which involve two cells. After conjugation, the two cells divide, forming four new cells.
Specialized structuresIn some forms there are also body polykinetids, for instance, among the spirotrichs where they generally form bristles called cirri. More often body cilia are arranged in mono- and dikinetids, which respectively include one and two kinetosomes (basal bodies), each of which may support a cilium. These are arranged into rows called kineties, which run from the anterior to posterior of the cell. The body and oral kinetids make up the infraciliature, an organization unique to the ciliates and important in their classification, and include various fibrils and microtubules involved in coordinating the cilia.
The infraciliature is one of the main component of the cell cortex. Another are the alveoli, small vesicles under the cell membrane that are packed against it to form a pellicle maintaining the cell's shape, which varies from flexible and contractile to rigid. Numerous mitochondria and extrusomes are also generally present. The presence of alveoli, the structure of the cilia, the form of mitosis and various other details indicate a close relationship between the ciliates, Apicomplexa, and dinoflagellates. These superficially dissimilar groups make up the alveolates.
Fossil recordUntil recently, the oldest ciliate fossils known were tintinnids from the Ordovician Period. In 2007, Li et al. published a description of fossil ciliates from the Doushantuo Formation, about 580 million years ago, in the Ediacaran Period. These included two types of tintinnids and a possible ancestral suctorian.
- Class Karyorelictea
- Class Heterotrichea (e.g. Stentor) * Class Spirotrichea
- Class Litostomatea
- Class Nassophorea
- Class Colpodea (e.g. Colpoda)
- Class Prostomatea (e.g. Coleps)
- Class Oligohymenophorea
- Class Plagiopylea
ciliates in Catalan: Ciliat
ciliates in Czech: Nálevníci
ciliates in German: Wimpertierchen
ciliates in Estonian: Ripsloomad
ciliates in Spanish: Ciliophora
ciliates in Basque: Ziliatu
ciliates in Persian: مژکداران
ciliates in French: Ciliata
ciliates in Indonesian: Ciliata
ciliates in Italian: Ciliophora
ciliates in Kara-Kalpak: İnfuzoriyalar
ciliates in Dutch: Ciliophora
ciliates in Japanese: 繊毛虫
ciliates in Norwegian: Flimmerdyr
ciliates in Low German: Ciliophora
ciliates in Polish: Orzęski
ciliates in Portuguese: Ciliado
ciliates in Russian: Реснитчатые
ciliates in Serbian: Трепљари
ciliates in Finnish: Ripsieläimet
ciliates in Swedish: Ciliater
ciliates in Turkish: Silliler
ciliates in Ukrainian: Війчасті